Potatoes are the starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum. A Harvard study of 120,000 men and women found potatoes to be a particular culprit of weight gain and diabetes. Potatoes do contain important nutrients but replacing potatoes with whole grains and other vegetables is likely to reduce the risk of weight gain and diabetes.
Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride. Salt is essential for animal life, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. In general, Americans should limit daily sodium consumption to 2,300 milligrams, but this is an upper safe limit, not a recommended daily allowance.
Flavoring derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation product. The flavorings may be obtained through a variety of methods including: drying, roasting, fermenting. This can include the essential oil, oleoresin, essence or extractive, distillate, or any product of roasting or heating. In order to be considered a natural flavor, the significant function in food must be for flavoring rather than nutritional. For flavors derived from synthetic sources, see Artificial Flavorings.
Unlike the yolk, which is high in lipids (fats), egg white contains almost no fat, and carbohydrate content is less than 1%. Egg whites contain just over 50% of the protein in the egg and fewer actual nutrients than the yolk.
An oil extracted from the germ of corn. Its main use is in cooking, where its high smoke point makes refined corn oil a valuable frying oil. Corn oil is generally less expensive than most other types of vegetable oils. Modern Western diets typically have ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 in excess of 10 to 1, some as high as 30 to 1, partly due to corn oil which has an omega-6 to omega-3 ratio of 49:1. The optimal ratio is thought to be 4 to 1 or lower.
The FDA requires the term artificial flavor or artificial flavoring be applied for any substance, the function of which is to impart flavor, which is not derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof. Conversely, the term natural flavor or natural flavoring applies to any substance to impart flavor that is derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof.
Maize, also known as corn, is a large grain plant first domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The six major types of corn are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, popcorn, flour corn, and sweet corn.
Spinach is a leafy green vegetable rich in vitamin K, vitamin A, manganese, folate, magnesium, iron, copper, vitamin B6, vitamin B2, vitamin E, calcium, vitamin C, and potassium. In addition, spinach is antioxidant packed and contains a wide variety of other health-supportive nutrients that help strengthen bones and prevent cancers.
The generalized name for sweet, short-chains of soluble carbohydrates. The world produced about 168 million tonnes of sugar in 2011. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year (33.1 kg in industrialised countries), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day. New FDA nutrition facts labels recommend no more than 50g of added sugars per day. Potential negative health effects of excess sugar consumption include addiction, Alzheimer's disease, changes in blood glucose levels, cardiovascular disease, hyperactivity, obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay.