An enzyme found in human saliva as well as made in the pancreas to digest starches. When used as a food additive amylase can be produced from three different sources: bacteria (non-pathogenic strains), fungus, and swine. It is often used to break down starch molecules before yeast is added to aid in the action of the yeast.
Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride. Salt is essential for animal life, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. In general, Americans should limit daily sodium consumption to 2,300 milligrams, but this is an upper safe limit, not a recommended daily allowance.
The generalized name for sweet, short-chains of soluble carbohydrates. The world produced about 168 million tonnes of sugar in 2011. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year (33.1 kg in industrialised countries), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day. New FDA nutrition facts labels recommend no more than 50g of added sugars per day. Potential negative health effects of excess sugar consumption include addiction, Alzheimer's disease, changes in blood glucose levels, cardiovascular disease, hyperactivity, obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay.
Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) is produced by boiling foods such as soy, corn, or wheat in hydrochloric acid and then neutralizing the solution with sodium hydroxide. The acid breaks down the protein in vegetables into their component amino acids.
Caramel color or caramel coloring is a water-soluble food coloring and one of the most widely used food colorings. It is widely approved for use in food globally but application and use level restrictions vary by country. California has listed a compound formed in the manufacture of Class III and IV caramel colors in the state's Proposition 65, thus legally including it in the category of chemicals "known to the state to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity".
Canola oil is produced from the rapeseed plant, the third-largest source of vegetable oil in the world. The "Can" part stands for Canada and "ola" refers to oil. Canola oil is low in saturated fat and contains both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a ratio of ~2:1 as well as monounsaturated fat.
Black pepper is a spice derived from berries known as peppercorns and is a rich source of manganese, vitamin K and copper. Black pepper is high in antioxidants and can improve digestion and intestinal health.