Potatoes are the starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum. A Harvard study of 120,000 men and women found potatoes to be a particular culprit of weight gain and diabetes. Potatoes do contain important nutrients but replacing potatoes with whole grains and other vegetables is likely to reduce the risk of weight gain and diabetes.
Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption. More wheat flour is produced than any other flour. The ingredient can be ambiguous but products labeled wheat flour typically are not whole grain.
Modified starch, also called starch derivatives, are prepared by physically, enzymatically, or chemically treating native starch to change its properties. Modified starches are used in food products as a thickening agent, stabilizer or emulsifier.
Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride. Salt is essential for animal life, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. In general, Americans should limit daily sodium consumption to 2,300 milligrams, but this is an upper safe limit, not a recommended daily allowance.
The generalized name for sweet, short-chains of soluble carbohydrates. The world produced about 168 million tonnes of sugar in 2011. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year (33.1 kg in industrialised countries), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day. New FDA nutrition facts labels recommend no more than 50g of added sugars per day. Potential negative health effects of excess sugar consumption include addiction, Alzheimer's disease, changes in blood glucose levels, cardiovascular disease, hyperactivity, obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay.
Produced by fermentation of a carbohydrate. Derived from a variety of sources including corn and wheat. Used to thicken and stabilize a variety of foods. Even in small amounts, can greatly increase viscosity of liquid.
Canola oil is produced from the rapeseed plant, the third-largest source of vegetable oil in the world. The "Can" part stands for Canada and "ola" refers to oil. Canola oil is low in saturated fat and contains both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a ratio of ~2:1 as well as monounsaturated fat.
Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) is produced by boiling foods such as soy, corn, or wheat in hydrochloric acid and then neutralizing the solution with sodium hydroxide. The acid breaks down the protein in vegetables into their component amino acids.
Caramel color or caramel coloring is a water-soluble food coloring and one of the most widely used food colorings. It is widely approved for use in food globally but application and use level restrictions vary by country. California has listed a compound formed in the manufacture of Class III and IV caramel colors in the state's Proposition 65, thus legally including it in the category of chemicals "known to the state to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity".