Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride. Salt is essential for animal life, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. In general, Americans should limit daily sodium consumption to 2,300 milligrams, but this is an upper safe limit, not a recommended daily allowance.
Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption. More wheat flour is produced than any other flour. The ingredient can be ambiguous but products labeled wheat flour typically are not whole grain.
Monocalcium phosphate is used as a leavening agent, meaning it is used in dough or batter to cause the mixture to raise. It is also used in canned fruits and vegetables because it is helpful in maintaining the firmness of fruits and vegetables.
Enriched flour is refined flour with specific nutrients returned to it that have been lost while being prepared. Common restored nutrients include iron and B vitamins. However, added vitamins and nutrients may lack the nutritional benefit of naturally present vitamins and nutrients.
Malted Barley Flour is made from barley that is malted (e.g. barley that is allowed to germinate), steam-dried, hulled, then ground and sifted. It is usually made from the species of barley that has six rows of seed to it per head.
Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch of maize. It is used in foods to soften texture, add volume, prevent crystallization of sugar, and enhance flavor. High-fructose corn syrup is manufactured from corn syrup by converting a large proportion of its glucose into fructose.
Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of soybeans. The Omega 6 to Omega 3 ratio is ~7:1. Health concerns have been expressed around the carcinogen N‐Nitrosodi-n-butylamine found in soybean oil.
On its own it is a very thick gelatinous substance that is extracted by making a wheat dough and washing away all the starch. It contributes to the structure and chewiness of bread. During baking of leavened breads it is the gluten network that traps carbon dioxide molecules causing it to rise. It is frequently added as a stabilizing agent in many foods.
Potatoes are the starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum. A Harvard study of 120,000 men and women found potatoes to be a particular culprit of weight gain and diabetes. Potatoes do contain important nutrients but replacing potatoes with whole grains and other vegetables is likely to reduce the risk of weight gain and diabetes.
Modified starch, also called starch derivatives, are prepared by physically, enzymatically, or chemically treating native starch to change its properties. Modified starches are used in food products as a thickening agent, stabilizer or emulsifier.
The generalized name for sweet, short-chains of soluble carbohydrates. The world produced about 168 million tonnes of sugar in 2011. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year (33.1 kg in industrialised countries), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day. New FDA nutrition facts labels recommend no more than 50g of added sugars per day. Potential negative health effects of excess sugar consumption include addiction, Alzheimer's disease, changes in blood glucose levels, cardiovascular disease, hyperactivity, obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay.
Produced by fermentation of a carbohydrate. Derived from a variety of sources including corn and wheat. Used to thicken and stabilize a variety of foods. Even in small amounts, can greatly increase viscosity of liquid.
Canola oil is produced from the rapeseed plant, the third-largest source of vegetable oil in the world. The "Can" part stands for Canada and "ola" refers to oil. Canola oil is low in saturated fat and contains both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a ratio of ~2:1 as well as monounsaturated fat.