Malted Barley Flour is made from barley that is malted (e.g. barley that is allowed to germinate), steam-dried, hulled, then ground and sifted. It is usually made from the species of barley that has six rows of seed to it per head.
Sunflower oil is derived from the seeds of the sunflower plant and is commonly used in processed foods. Modern Western diets typically have ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 in excess of 10 to 1, some as high as 30 to 1, partly due to sunflower oil which has an omega-6 to omega-3 ratio of 1:0. The optimal ratio is thought to be 4 to 1 or lower.
Vinegar is an alcoholic fluid allowed to sour that is primarily used to flavor and preserve foods. Vinegar contains few nutrients and few calories. Vinegar may provide health benefits if used to replace certain higher calorie alternatives.
On its own it is a very thick gelatinous substance that is extracted by making a wheat dough and washing away all the starch. It contributes to the structure and chewiness of bread. During baking of leavened breads it is the gluten network that traps carbon dioxide molecules causing it to rise. It is frequently added as a stabilizing agent in many foods.
Lecithins are oily substances that occur naturally in plants (soybeans) and animals (egg yolks). It’s actually a very popular ingredient – one of the top 10 most used ingredients in processed foods. Since soybeans are one of the cheapest crops in the US (thanks in part to federal subsidies to growers), it makes sense to use a cheap, natural soy derived emulsifier in food processing. People concerned about GMOs and those who avoid refined oils should avoid Soy Lecithin.
The generalized name for sweet, short-chains of soluble carbohydrates. The world produced about 168 million tonnes of sugar in 2011. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year (33.1 kg in industrialised countries), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day. New FDA nutrition facts labels recommend no more than 50g of added sugars per day. Potential negative health effects of excess sugar consumption include addiction, Alzheimer's disease, changes in blood glucose levels, cardiovascular disease, hyperactivity, obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from tree bark. It is high in manganese and antioxidants providing significant nutrition for few calories. Consuming more than 1 1/4 teaspoons of common cassia (Chinese) cinnamon may cause negative side effects such as difficulty breathing and increased heart rate particularly in people with liver disease.
Ginger is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine. It is a herbaceous perennial which grows annual stems about a meter tall bearing narrow green leaves and yellow flowers.
Monocalcium phosphate is used as a leavening agent, meaning it is used in dough or batter to cause the mixture to raise. It is also used in canned fruits and vegetables because it is helpful in maintaining the firmness of fruits and vegetables.
Produced by fermentation of a carbohydrate. Derived from a variety of sources including corn and wheat. Used to thicken and stabilize a variety of foods. Even in small amounts, can greatly increase viscosity of liquid.
Canola oil is produced from the rapeseed plant, the third-largest source of vegetable oil in the world. The "Can" part stands for Canada and "ola" refers to oil. Canola oil is low in saturated fat and contains both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a ratio of ~2:1 as well as monounsaturated fat.
Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride. Salt is essential for animal life, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. In general, Americans should limit daily sodium consumption to 2,300 milligrams, but this is an upper safe limit, not a recommended daily allowance.
Fruit juice concentrates are processed products that have removed natural water, fiber and phytonutrient content found in fruit. Concentrates are much more concentrated sources of simple sugar and are much less nutritiously dense than fruits.
Sulfur occur naturally in some foods or is added to foods to preserve them and retain natural color. There are six sulfite additives currently listed with the FDA (see names section above). Sulfur Dioxide is gas that is formed when sulfur burns. It is used as a preservative and as a disinfectant for winery and brewery equipment.
Black pepper is a spice derived from berries known as peppercorns and is a rich source of manganese, vitamin K and copper. Black pepper is high in antioxidants and can improve digestion and intestinal health.
Modified starch, also called starch derivatives, are prepared by physically, enzymatically, or chemically treating native starch to change its properties. Modified starches are used in food products as a thickening agent, stabilizer or emulsifier.
Cultivars of the bell pepper plant produce fruits in different colors, including red, yellow, orange, green, chocolate/brown, vanilla/white, and purple. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers".
Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of soybeans. The Omega 6 to Omega 3 ratio is ~7:1. Health concerns have been expressed around the carcinogen N‐Nitrosodi-n-butylamine found in soybean oil.
Skim milk is made when all the cream is removed from whole milk. Milk contains the water soluble vitamins thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cobalamin), vitamin C, and folate. Milk is a good source of thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin B12 .