Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride. Salt is essential for animal life, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. In general, Americans should limit daily sodium consumption to 2,300 milligrams, but this is an upper safe limit, not a recommended daily allowance.
MSG is used in the food industry as a flavor enhancer with an umami taste that intensifies the meaty, savory flavor of food, as naturally occurring glutamate does in foods such as stews and meat soups.
The generalized name for sweet, short-chains of soluble carbohydrates. The world produced about 168 million tonnes of sugar in 2011. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year (33.1 kg in industrialised countries), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day. New FDA nutrition facts labels recommend no more than 50g of added sugars per day. Potential negative health effects of excess sugar consumption include addiction, Alzheimer's disease, changes in blood glucose levels, cardiovascular disease, hyperactivity, obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay.
Malted Barley Flour is made from barley that is malted (e.g. barley that is allowed to germinate), steam-dried, hulled, then ground and sifted. It is usually made from the species of barley that has six rows of seed to it per head.
Monocalcium phosphate is used as a leavening agent, meaning it is used in dough or batter to cause the mixture to raise. It is also used in canned fruits and vegetables because it is helpful in maintaining the firmness of fruits and vegetables.
Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of soybeans. The Omega 6 to Omega 3 ratio is ~7:1. Health concerns have been expressed around the carcinogen N‐Nitrosodi-n-butylamine found in soybean oil.
Chicken eggs are widely used in many types of dishes, both sweet and savory, including many baked goods. Some of the most common preparation methods include scrambled, fried, hard-boiled, soft-boiled, omelettes and pickled.
Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption. More wheat flour is produced than any other flour. The ingredient can be ambiguous but products labeled wheat flour typically are not whole grain.
Also called Pyridoxine, Vitamin B1 is one of eight B Vitamins and was the first to be discovered. All B vitamins help convert food into fuel to produce energy. An essential vitamin required for the metabolism of carbohydrates and protein. RDI is 1.2 mg/day for adult males and 1.1 mg/day for adult females. Please check USDA Dietary Guidance for intakes for children, pregnant women or for persons with chronic disease.
Also called Riboflavin, Vitamin B2 is one of eight B Vitamins. All B vitamins help convert food into fuel to produce energy. An essential vitamin required for metabolic function and every cell in the body contains a small amount. Necessary for healthy skin, respiration and eyesight as well as helping to build tissues. RDI is 1.3 mg/day for adult males and 1.1 mg/day for adult females. Please check USDA Dietary Guidance for intakes for children, pregnant women or for persons with chronic disease.
High Fructose Corn Syrup is a sweetener made from corn starch that has been processed to convert some of the syrup's naturally occurring glucose into fructose. Health concerns have been raised about a relationship between sugars like HFCS and metabolic disorders. HFCS also contains components that can create advanced glycation end-products, the possible health effects of which were under investigation as of 2013.
On its own it is a very thick gelatinous substance that is extracted by making a wheat dough and washing away all the starch. It contributes to the structure and chewiness of bread. During baking of leavened breads it is the gluten network that traps carbon dioxide molecules causing it to rise. It is frequently added as a stabilizing agent in many foods.
An enzyme found in human saliva as well as made in the pancreas to digest starches. When used as a food additive amylase can be produced from three different sources: bacteria (non-pathogenic strains), fungus, and swine. It is often used to break down starch molecules before yeast is added to aid in the action of the yeast.
Lecithins are oily substances that occur naturally in plants (soybeans) and animals (egg yolks). It’s actually a very popular ingredient – one of the top 10 most used ingredients in processed foods. Since soybeans are one of the cheapest crops in the US (thanks in part to federal subsidies to growers), it makes sense to use a cheap, natural soy derived emulsifier in food processing. People concerned about GMOs and those who avoid refined oils should avoid Soy Lecithin.
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil high in saturated fat derived from the fruit of the oil palms. Along with coconut oil, palm oil is one of the few highly saturated vegetable fats and is semi-solid at room temperature.
The FDA requires the term artificial flavor or artificial flavoring be applied for any substance, the function of which is to impart flavor, which is not derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof.
Vinegar is an alcoholic fluid allowed to sour that is primarily used to flavor and preserve foods. Vinegar contains few nutrients and few calories. Vinegar may provide health benefits if used to replace certain higher calorie alternatives.
The FDA requires the term natural flavor or natural flavoring be applied for any substance, the function of which is to impart flavor, which is derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof.
An emulsifier, thickener, and humectant created by adding an oleic acid molecule to sorbitol. It is a thick liquid that is commonly used in non-dairy creamers and whipped cream to prevent oil separation and allow whiteners to dissolve.
Tartrazine, known as Yellow 5, is a synthetic dye commonly used as a food coloring in the production of some potato chips, jams, candy, and drinks. Yellow 5 contains benzidene, a human and animal carcinogen permitted in low levels. The dye may cause allergic reactions such as asthma though such reaction is in low prevalence. Other potential harmful effects include hyperactivity and risk of cancer. The dye is banned in Austria and Norway
Brilliant Blue FCF, known as Blue 1, is a blue food dye derived from petroleum commonly found in soups, icings, popsicles, blue raspberry flavored products and liqueurs such as Blue Curacao. While toxicology studies have shown the dye is relatively safe, the Center for Science in the Public Interest has argued the dye may be linked to ADD and hyperactivity. The FDA has issued a warning of toxicity associated with the use of feeding tubes tinted with Blue 1.