Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption. More wheat flour is produced than any other flour. The ingredient can be ambiguous but products labeled wheat flour typically are not whole grain.
Malted Barley Flour is made from barley that is malted (e.g. barley that is allowed to germinate), steam-dried, hulled, then ground and sifted. It is usually made from the species of barley that has six rows of seed to it per head.
On its own it is a very thick gelatinous substance that is extracted by making a wheat dough and washing away all the starch. It contributes to the structure and chewiness of bread. During baking of leavened breads it is the gluten network that traps carbon dioxide molecules causing it to rise. It is frequently added as a stabilizing agent in many foods.
Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride. Salt is essential for animal life, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. In general, Americans should limit daily sodium consumption to 2,300 milligrams, but this is an upper safe limit, not a recommended daily allowance.
A glycerol molecule is combined with either one (mono) or two (di) fatty acids to create a synthetic fat. Derived from the either vegetable oils, such as (soybean, sunflower, palm, cottonseed or canola) or animal fats (beef or pork). This is a common food additive most often used to blend ingredients together that would not otherwise blend well.
Canola oil is produced from the rapeseed plant, the third-largest source of vegetable oil in the world. The "Can" part stands for Canada and "ola" refers to oil. Canola oil is low in saturated fat and contains both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a ratio of ~2:1 as well as monounsaturated fat.
Rolled oats, also known as old fashioned oats, are whole grain and produced through steaming oat groats then rolling them into flakes to help the oats cook faster and stay fresh longer. This process stabilizes the healthy oils in the oats.
The generalized name for sweet, short-chains of soluble carbohydrates. The world produced about 168 million tonnes of sugar in 2011. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year (33.1 kg in industrialised countries), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day. New FDA nutrition facts labels recommend no more than 50g of added sugars per day. Potential negative health effects of excess sugar consumption include addiction, Alzheimer's disease, changes in blood glucose levels, cardiovascular disease, hyperactivity, obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay.
Autolyzed yeast (containing the cell walls) or autolyzed yeast extract consists of concentrations of yeast cells that are allowed to die and break up, so that the yeasts’ endogenous digestive enzymes break their proteins down into simpler compounds (amino acids and peptides).
A flavor enhancer/intensifier that is often used in conjunction with MSG and sometimes disodium guanylate (the latter combination is known as disodium 5'-ribonucleotides). It is a purine - a naturally occurring precursor to DNA and RNA - and is almost always derived from animal origin. Unlike disodium guanylate, disodium inosinate is completely ineffective without MSG.
A flavor enhancer/intensifier often used in conjunction with MSG and sometimes disodium inosinate (the latter combination is known as disodium 5'-ribonucleotides). It is a purine - a naturally occurring precursor to DNA and RNA - and can be isolated from certain mushrooms, dried fish, and dried seaweed.
Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of soybeans. The Omega 6 to Omega 3 ratio is ~7:1. Health concerns have been expressed around the carcinogen N‐Nitrosodi-n-butylamine found in soybean oil.
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil high in saturated fat derived from the fruit of the oil palms. Along with coconut oil, palm oil is one of the few highly saturated vegetable fats and is semi-solid at room temperature.
Lecithins are oily substances that occur naturally in plants (soybeans) and animals (egg yolks). It’s actually a very popular ingredient – one of the top 10 most used ingredients in processed foods. Since soybeans are one of the cheapest crops in the US (thanks in part to federal subsidies to growers), it makes sense to use a cheap, natural soy derived emulsifier in food processing. People concerned about GMOs and those who avoid refined oils should avoid Soy Lecithin.
The FDA requires the term artificial flavor or artificial flavoring be applied for any substance, the function of which is to impart flavor, which is not derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof. Conversely, the term natural flavor or natural flavoring applies to any substance to impart flavor that is derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof.