The generalized name for sweet, short-chains of soluble carbohydrates. The world produced about 168 million tonnes of sugar in 2011. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year (33.1 kg in industrialised countries), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day. New FDA nutrition facts labels recommend no more than 50g of added sugars per day. Potential negative health effects of excess sugar consumption include addiction, Alzheimer's disease, changes in blood glucose levels, cardiovascular disease, hyperactivity, obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay.
Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride. Salt is essential for animal life, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. In general, Americans should limit daily sodium consumption to 2,300 milligrams, but this is an upper safe limit, not a recommended daily allowance.
Autolyzed yeast (containing the cell walls) or autolyzed yeast extract consists of concentrations of yeast cells that are allowed to die and break up, so that the yeasts’ endogenous digestive enzymes break their proteins down into simpler compounds (amino acids and peptides).
A flavor enhancer/intensifier that is often used in conjunction with MSG and sometimes disodium guanylate (the latter combination is known as disodium 5'-ribonucleotides). It is a purine - a naturally occurring precursor to DNA and RNA - and is almost always derived from animal origin. Unlike disodium guanylate, disodium inosinate is completely ineffective without MSG.
A flavor enhancer/intensifier often used in conjunction with MSG and sometimes disodium inosinate (the latter combination is known as disodium 5'-ribonucleotides). It is a purine - a naturally occurring precursor to DNA and RNA - and can be isolated from certain mushrooms, dried fish, and dried seaweed.
The FDA requires the term natural flavor or natural flavoring be applied for any substance, the function of which is to impart flavor, which is derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof.
Modified starch, also called starch derivatives, are prepared by physically, enzymatically, or chemically treating native starch to change its properties. Modified starches are used in food products as a thickening agent, stabilizer or emulsifier.
Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of soybeans. The Omega 6 to Omega 3 ratio is ~7:1. Health concerns have been expressed around the carcinogen N‐Nitrosodi-n-butylamine found in soybean oil.
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil high in saturated fat derived from the fruit of the oil palms. Along with coconut oil, palm oil is one of the few highly saturated vegetable fats and is semi-solid at room temperature.
Lecithins are oily substances that occur naturally in plants (soybeans) and animals (egg yolks). It’s actually a very popular ingredient – one of the top 10 most used ingredients in processed foods. Since soybeans are one of the cheapest crops in the US (thanks in part to federal subsidies to growers), it makes sense to use a cheap, natural soy derived emulsifier in food processing. People concerned about GMOs and those who avoid refined oils should avoid Soy Lecithin.
The FDA requires the term artificial flavor or artificial flavoring be applied for any substance, the function of which is to impart flavor, which is not derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof. Conversely, the term natural flavor or natural flavoring applies to any substance to impart flavor that is derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof.
Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption. More wheat flour is produced than any other flour. The ingredient can be ambiguous but products labeled wheat flour typically are not whole grain.
Malted Barley Flour is made from barley that is malted (e.g. barley that is allowed to germinate), steam-dried, hulled, then ground and sifted. It is usually made from the species of barley that has six rows of seed to it per head.
Prepared from lactic, stearic, and fatty acids. Calcium variety is used as dough conditioner and whipping agent. Sodium variety used as an emulsifier in a wide variety of foods. When fumaric acid is used in place of lactic acid, it is called sodium stearoyl fumarate.
Azodicarbonamide is used for the following reasons in the baking industry: to bleach flour (to make flour whiter), as a dough conditioner, and as an aging ingredient.In addition, this chemical is used as a blowing agent in the rubber and plastics industries. Also used as the foaming agent in the plastic gaskets that are used to seal metal lids to glass packaging.
Monocalcium phosphate is used as a leavening agent, meaning it is used in dough or batter to cause the mixture to raise. It is also used in canned fruits and vegetables because it is helpful in maintaining the firmness of fruits and vegetables.
Vinegar is an alcoholic fluid allowed to sour that is primarily used to flavor and preserve foods. Vinegar contains few nutrients and few calories. Vinegar may provide health benefits if used to replace certain higher calorie alternatives.
An emulsifier, thickener, and humectant created by adding an oleic acid molecule to sorbitol. It is a thick liquid that is commonly used in non-dairy creamers and whipped cream to prevent oil separation and allow whiteners to dissolve.
Tartrazine, known as Yellow 5, is a synthetic dye commonly used as a food coloring in the production of some potato chips, jams, candy, and drinks. Yellow 5 contains benzidene, a human and animal carcinogen permitted in low levels. The dye may cause allergic reactions such as asthma though such reaction is in low prevalence. Other potential harmful effects include hyperactivity and risk of cancer. The dye is banned in Austria and Norway
Brilliant Blue FCF, known as Blue 1, is a blue food dye derived from petroleum commonly found in soups, icings, popsicles, blue raspberry flavored products and liqueurs such as Blue Curacao. While toxicology studies have shown the dye is relatively safe, the Center for Science in the Public Interest has argued the dye may be linked to ADD and hyperactivity. The FDA has issued a warning of toxicity associated with the use of feeding tubes tinted with Blue 1.